Is Israel Truly Sovereign?
Israel is the only Jewish state in the world. It is home to perhaps the world's largest Jewish population; was reestablished in its ancient homeland after 2,000 years of exile; is democratic with a substantial minority, mostly Muslim; and has never known true peace in its short life as a modern state since 1948.
Given this unprecedented history and unparalleled success as an ancient/modern nation, the question can still be asked, Is Israel sovereign?
After all, Israel functions as a democracy with a parliamentary-style government, and has an independent judiciary as well as a powerful military force, leading one to convincingly assert that yes, Israel is a sovereign nation.
Yet, given all these trappings of sovereignty, Israel does not always act as a truly sovereign nation, making decisions and acting in its own best interests.
- Why does Israel still give credence to the idea of a Palestinian state within Israel's boundaries? Why not denounce it once and for all as unworkable, and dangerous to the continued existence of the Jewish state?
- Why has Israel delayed settling and developing Judea and Samaria in substantial ways, especially in the E-1 area connecting Jerusalem with Maale Adumim, and in the Jordan Valley as well as other strategic and historic locales?
- Why doesn't Israel demolish thousands of illegal Arab structures throughout all of Israel, many built with funds from European nations and NGOs?
- Why are there prohibitions against Jewish prayer and other severe restrictions in place against Jews on the Temple Mount?
- Why doesn't Israel expel the tens of thousands of illegal squatters in south Tel Aviv? These individuals are not refugees, and Israel can ill afford to absorb them.
Geographically Israel is a small country surrounded by a sea of Arabs in a dangerous neighborhood, with threats on its borders growing more ominous, especially in light of Iran's march toward creating a Shiitecrescent all the way from Iran through Lebanon to the Mediterranean Sea, as well as Iran's reestablished relationship with Hamas in Gaza.
And yes, Israel relies on the United States for military assistance and backing in institutions such as the United Nations.
These and other rationales are cited for Israel's seemingly lack of independent action at times.
However, history has shown that when Israel acts strongly for itself and in its own best interests (damn world opinion), she comes out better for it.
Sovereignty means control, rule, power and authority. Today, Israel is sovereign in the Land of Israel, but only partially. Finally, the time is ripe for Israel to assert full sovereignty. This is the only way to safeguard its future.
Thursday, August 31, 2017
Conference of April 1920 was an
international meeting held following the conclusion of World War I that determined the
precise boundaries for territories captured by the Allies. San Remo
The British delegation to
The Conference was also attended by Chaim Weizmann, Nahum Sokolov, and Herbert Samuel, who presented a memorandum to the British delegation on the final settlement in the
The resolution at
Balfour Declaration, the British government’s letter of support for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in
. (Which emulated Napoleons 1799 letter to the Jewish
community in Palestine promising that The National Home for The Jewish people will
be reestablished in Palestine , as the Jews are the rightful owners). Furthermore was
declared as having the force of International Law in the 1920 Palestine Conference by the Supreme Allied Powers. San Remo
LEAGUE OF NATIONS. MANDATE FOR PALESTINE, TOGETHER WITH A NOTE BY THE SECRETARY - GENERAL RELATING TO ITS APPLICATION
Full text of "Mandate for Palestine"
LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
TOGETHER WITH A
NOTE BY THE SECRETARY - GENERAL
RELATING TO ITS APPLICATION
TERRITORY KNOWN AS TRANS-JORDAN.
under the provisions of Article 25.
Presented to Parliament by Command of His Majesty,
Published by his Majesty Secretary’s office
'I'u to |>lll
II. M STA I
iMi'KHItl. Iloinf, klM>tU>i .
3'/, rkTKII SlU»l I, M ■
, ,.,..,, UtMlMJM. 3.W. I.
I'nCi, VhI. nd .
together with a PALESTINE
Note by the Secretary-General relating to its application to the
Territory known as Trans-Jordan,
under the provisions of Article 25.
The Council of the
Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have agreed, for the purpose
of giving effect to the provisions of Article 22 of the Covenant of the
Powers the administration of the
, which formerly territory of Palestine
belonged to the
Turkish Empire, within such boundaries as may be
fixed by them; and
Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have also agreed that the
Mandatory should be responsible for putting into effect the declaration
originally made on
November 2nd, 1917, by the Government of His
Britannic Majesty, and adopted by the said Powers, in favor of the
of a national home for the Jewish people, Palestine
it being clearly understood that nothing should be done which might
prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non- Jewish communities
, or the rights and political status enjoyed
Jews in any other country; and
Whereas recognition has thereby been given to the historical connection
of the Jewish people with
and to the grounds for Palestine
reconstituting their national home in that country; and
Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have selected His Britannic
Majesty as the Mandatory for
; and Palestine
Whereas the mandate in respect of
has been formulated Palestine
in the following terms and submitted to the Council of the League for
Whereas His Britannic Majesty has accepted the mandate in
and undertaken to exercise it on behalf of the Palestine
Whereas by the afore-mentioned Article 22 (paragraph 8), it is
provided that the degree of authority, control or administration to be
exercised by the Mandatory, not having been previously agreed upon
by the Members of the League, shall be explicitly defined by the Council
League of Nations;
Confirming the said mandate, defines its terms as follows:
The Mandatory shall have full powers of legislation and of administration,
save as they may be limited by the terms of this mandate.
The Mandatory shall be responsible for placing the country under
such political, administrative and economic conditions as will secure
the establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down in the
preamble, and the development of self-governing institutions, and also
for safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of
The Mandatory shall, so far as circumstances permit, encourage
An appropriate Jewish agency shall be recognized as a public body
for the purpose of advising and co-operating with the Administration
in such economic, social and other matters
as may affect Palestine
the establishment of the Jewish national home and the interests of the
Jewish population in
, and, subject always to the control of Palestine
the Administration, to assist and take part in the development of the
The Zionist organization, so long as its organization and constitution
are in the opinion of the Mandatory appropriate, shall be recognized
as such agency. It shall take steps in consultation with His Britannic
Majesty's Government to secure the co-operation of all Jews who are
willing to assist in the establishment of the Jewish national home.
The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that no
territory shall be ceded or leased to, or in any way placed under the
control of, the Government of any foreign Power.
The Administration of Palestine, while ensuring that the rights and
position of other sections of the population are not prejudiced, shall
facilitate Jewish immigration under suitable conditions and shall
encourage, in co-operation with the Jewish agency referred to in
Article 4, close settlement by Jews on the land, including State lands
and waste lands not required for public purposes.
The Administration of Palestine shall be responsible for enacting
a nationality law. There shall be included in this law provisions
framed so as to facilitate the acquisition of Palestinian citizenship by
Jews who take up their permanent residence in
The privilege- and immunities of foreigners, including the benefits
of consular jurisdiction and protection as formerly enjoyed by Capitulation
or usage in the
Ottoman Empire, shall not be applicable in . Palestine
Unless the Powers whose nationals enjoyed the afore -mentioned
privileges and immunities on
August 1st, 1914, shall have previously
renounced the right to their re-estabhshment, or shall have agreed to
their non-application for a specified period, these privileges and
immunities shall, at the expiration of the mandate, be immediately
re-established in their entirety or with such modifications as may have
been agreed upon between the Powers concerned.
The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that the judicial
system established in
shall assure to foreigners, as well as to Palestine
natives, a complete guarantee of their rights.
Respect for the personal status of the various peoples and communities
and for their religious interests shall be fully guaranteed. In
particular, the control and administration of Wakf’s shall be exercised
in accordance with religious law and the dispositions of the founders.
Pending the making of special extradition agreements relating to
other foreign Powers shall apply to
The Administration of Palestine shall take all necessary measures
to safeguard the interests of the community in connection with the
development of the country, and, subject to any international obligations
accepted by the Mandatory, shall have full power to provide for
public ownership or control of any of the natural resources of the
country or of the public works, services and utilities established or to
be established therein. It shall introduce a land system appropriate
to the needs of the country, having regard, among other things, to the
desirability of promoting the close settlement and intensive cultivation
of the land.
The Administration may arrange with the Jewish agency mentioned
in Article 4 to construct or operate, upon fair and equitable terms,
any pubic works, services and utilities, and to develop any of the
natural resources of the country, in so far as these matters are not
directly undertaken by the Administration. Any such arrangements
shall provide that no profits distributed by such agency, directly or
indirectly, shall exceed a reasonable rate of interest on the capital,
and any further profits shall be utilized by it for the benefit of the
country in a manner approved by the Administration.
The Mandatory shall be entrusted with the control of the foreign
and the right to issue exequaturs to consuls Palestine
appointed by foreign Powers. He shall also be entitled to afford
diplomatic and consular protection to citizens of
outside its territorial limits.
All responsibility in connection with the Holy Places and religious
buildings or sites in
, including that of preserving existing Palestine
rights and of securing free access to the Holy Places, religious buildings
and sites and the free exercise of worship, while ensuring the requirements
of public order and decorum, is assumed by the Mandatory,
who shall be responsible solely to the
Nations in all matters
connected herewith, provided that nothing in this article shall prevent
the Mandatory from entering into such arrangements as he may deem
reasonable with the Administration for the purpose of carrying the
provisions of this article into effect; and provided also that nothing
in this mandate shall be construed as conferring upon the Mandatory
authority to interfere with the fabric or the management of purely
Muslim sacred shrines, the immunities of which are guaranteed.
A special Commission shall be appointed by the Mandatory to
study, define and determine the rights and claims in connection with
the Holy Places and the rights and claims relating to the different
religious communities in
. The method of nomination, the Palestine
composition and the functions of this Commission shall be submitted
to the Council of the League for its approval, and the Commission
shall not be appointed or enter upon its functions without the approval
of the Council.
The Mandatory shall see that complete freedom of conscience and
the free exercise of all forms of worship, subject only to the maintenance
of public order and morals, are ensured to all. No discrimination
of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants of
on the ground of race, religion or language. No person shall be
on the sole ground of his religious belief. Palestine
The right of each community to maintain its own schools for
the education of its own members in its own language, while con-
forming to such educational requirements of a general nature as the
Administration may impose, shall not be denied or impaired.
The Mandatory shall be responsible for exercising such supervision
over religious or eleemosynary bodies of all faiths in
as may Palestine
be required for the maintenance of public order and good government.
Subject to such supervision, no measures shall be taken in
to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of such bodies or to
discriminate against any representative or member of them on the
ground of his religion or nationality.
The Administration of Palestine may organize on a voluntary basis
the forces necessary for the preservation of peace and order, and
also for the defense of the country, subject, however, to the super-
vision of the Mandatory, but shall not use them for purposes other
than those above specified save with the consent of the Mandatory.
Except for such purposes, no military, naval or air forces shall be
raised or maintained by the Administration of Palestine.
Nothing in this article shall preclude the Administration of Palestine
from contributing to the cost of the maintenance of the forces of the
The Mandatory shall be entitled at all times to use the roads,
railways and ports of
for the movement of armed forces Palestine
and the carriage of fuel and supplies.
The Mandatory shall see that there is no discrimination in
against the nationals of any State Member of the
(including companies incorporated under its laws) as compared with
those of the Mandatory or of any foreign State in matters concerning
taxation, commerce or navigation, the exercise of industries or
professions, or in the treatment of merchant vessels or civil aircraft.
Similarly, there shall be no discrimination in
against goods Palestine
originating in or destined for any of the said States, and there shall
be freedom of transit under equitable conditions across the mandated
Subject as aforesaid and to the other provisions of this mandate,
the Administration of Palestine may, on the advice of the Mandatory,
impose such taxes and customs duties as it may consider necessary,
and take such steps as it may think best to promote the development
of the natural resources of the country and to safeguard the interests
of the population. It may also, on the advice of the Mandatory,
conclude a special customs agreement with any State the territory
of which in 1914 was wholly included in Asiatic Turkey or
The Mandatory shall adhere on behalf of the Administration of
or which may be concluded hereafter with the approval of the League
of Nations, respecting the slave traffic, the traffic in arms and ammunition,
or the traffic in drugs, or relating to commercial equity, freedom
of transit and navigation, aerial navigation and postal, telegraphic
and wireless communication or literary, artistic or industrial property.
The Mandatory shall co-operate on behalf of the Administration
, so far as religious, social and other conditions may
in the execution of any common policy adopted by the League of
Nations for preventing and combating disease,, including diseases of
plants and animals.
The Mandatory shall secure the enactment within twelve months
from this date, and shall ensure the execution of a Law of Antiquities
based on the following rules. This law shall ensure equality of treatment
in the matter of excavations and archaeological research to the
nations of all States Members of the
League of Nations.
"Antiquity " means any construction or any product of human
activity earlier than the year AD. 1700.
The law for the protection of antiquities shall proceed by encouragement
rather than by threat.
Any person who, having discovered an antiquity without being
furnished with the authorization referred to in paragraph 5, reports the
same to an official of the competent Department, shall be rewarded
according to the value of the discovery.
No antiquity may be disposed of except to the competent Department,
unless this Department renounces the acquisition of any such
No antiquity may leave the country without an export license from
the said Department.
Any person who maliciously or negligently destroys or damages an
antiquity shall be liable to a penalty to be fixed.
No clearing of ground or digging with the object of finding antiquities
shall be permitted, under penalty of line, except to persons authorized
by the competent Department.
Equitable terms shall be fixed for expropriation, temporary or
permanent, of lands which might be of historical or archeological
Authorization to excavate shall only be granted to persons who
show sufficient guarantees of archaeological expertise. The Administration
shall not, in granting these authorizations, act in Palestine
such a way as to exclude scholars of any nation without good grounds.
The proceeds of excavations may be divided between the excavator
and the competent Department in a proportion fixed by that Department.
If division seems inaccessible for scientific reasons, the excavator
shall receive a fair indemnity in lieu of a part of the find.
English, Arabic and Hebrew shall be the official languages o£
shall be repeated in Hebrew, and any
or inscription in Hebrew shall be repeated in Arabic.
The Administration of Palestine shall recognize the holy days of the
respective communities in
as legal days of rest for the members Palestine
of such communities.
The Mandatory shall make to the Council of the
an annual report to the satisfaction of the Council as to the measures
taken during the year to carry out the provisions of the mandate.
Copies of all laws and regulations promulgated or issued during the
year shall be communicated with the report.
In the territories lying between the
and the eastern boundary Jordan
as ultimately determined, the Mandatory shall be
with the consent of the Council of the
Nations, to postpone
or withhold application of such provisions of this mandate as he may
consider inapplicable to the existing local conditions, and to make such
provision for the administration of the territories as he may consider
suitable to those conditions, provided that no action shall be taken
which is inconsistent with the provisions of Articles 15, 16 and 18.
The Mandatory agrees that, if any dispute whatever should arise
between the Mandatory and another Member of the
relating to the interpretation or the application of the provisions of
the mandate, such dispute, if it cannot be settled by negotiation, shall
be submitted to the Permanent Court of International Justice provided
for by Article 14 of the Covenant of the
The consent of the Council of the
League of Nations is required for
any modification of the terms of this mandate.
In the event of the termination of the mandate hereby conferred
upon the Mandatory, the Council of the
League of Nations shall make
such arrangements as may be deemed necessary for safeguarding in
perpetuity, under guarantee of the League, the rights secured by
Articles 13 and 14, and shall use its influence for securing, under the
guarantee of the League, that the Government of Palestine will fully
honor the financial obligations legitimately incurred by the Administration
during the period of the mandate,
including the Palestine
rights of public servants to pensions or gratuities.
The present instrument shall be deposited in original in the archives
of the League of Nations and certified copies shall be forwarded by the
Secretary-General of the
Nations to all
Members of the
the twenty -fourth day of July, one thousand nine London
hundred and twenty-two.
Certified true copy:
For the Secretary-General,
Director of the Mandates Section.
AKTICLE 25 OF THE
Territory known as Trans-Jordan.
Note by the Secretary-General.
The Secretary-General has the honor to communicate for the
information of the Members of the League, a memorandum relating to
Article 25 of the Palestine Mandate presented by the British Government
to the Council of the League on
The memorandum was approved by the Council subject to the
decision taken at its meeting in
on London July 24th, 1922, with
regard to the coming into force of the
and Syrian mandates. Palestine
Memorandum by the British Representative.
1. Article 25 of the Mandate for
provides as follows :— Palestine
"In the territories lying between the
and the eastern Jordan
as ultimately determined, the Mandatory Palestine
shall be entitled, with the consent of the Council of the League
of Nations, to postpone or withhold application of such provisions
of this Mandate as he may consider inapplicable to the existing
local conditions, and to make such provision for the administration
of the territories as he may consider suitable to those conditions,
provided no action shall be taken which is inconsistent with
the provisions of Articles 15, 16 and 18."
2. In pursuance of the provisions of this Article, His Majesty’s
Government invite the Council to pass the following resolution: —
"The following provisions of the Mandate for
not applicable to the territory known as Trans-Jordan, which
comprises all territory lying to the east of a line drawn from a
point two miles west of the town of
on the Gulf of that Akaba
name up the centre of the Wady Araba,
Dead Sea and River
centre of that river to the Syrian Frontier."
Preamble. — Recitals 2 and 3.
Article 2. — The words '' placing the country under such judicial
administration and economic- conditions as will secure the
establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down
in the preamble, and".
Article 7. — The sentence "There shall be included in this law
provisions framed so as to facilitate the acquisition of
Palestinian citizenship by Jews who take up their permanent
Article 11. — The second sentence of the first paragraph and the
In the application of the Mandate to
, the action Trans- Jordan
, is taken by the Administration of the latter Palestine
country, will be taken by the Administration of Trans-Jordan under
the general supervision of the Mandatory.
3. His Majesty's Government accepts full responsibility as Mandatory
for Trans-Jordan, and undertake that such provision as may
be made for the administration of that territory in accordance with
Article 25 of the Mandate shall be in no way inconsistent with those
provisions of the Mandate which are not by this resolution declared
ARTICLE 25 OF THE
Territory known as Trans-Jordan.
Note by the Secretary-General.
The Secretary-General has the honor to communicate for the information of the Members of the League, a memorandum relating to Article 25 of the Palestine Mandate presented by the British Government to the Council of the League on
The memorandum was approved by the Council subject to the decision taken at its meeting in
on London July 24th, 1922, with regard to the coming into force
of the and Syrian mandates. Palestine
Memorandum by the British Representative
1. Article 25 of the Mandate for
provides as follows :— Palestine
"In the territories lying between the Jordan and the eastern boundary of Palestine as ultimately determined, the Mandatory shall be entitled, with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations, to postpone or withhold application of such provisions of this Mandate as he may consider inapplicable to the existing local conditions, and to make such provision for the administration of the territories as he may consider suitable to those conditions, provided no action shall be taken which is inconsistent with the provisions of Articles 15, 16 and 18."
2. In pursuance of the provisions of this Article, His Majesty’s Government invite the Council to pass the following resolution : — "
The following provisions of the Mandate for Palestine are not applicable to the territory known as Trans-Jordan, which comprises all territory lying to the east of a line drawn from a point two miles west of the town of Akaba on the Gulf of that name up the centre of the Wady Araba, Dead Sea and River Jordan to its junction with the River Yarmuk ; thence up the centre of that river to the Syrian Frontier."
Preamble.—Recitals 2 and 3.
Article 2.—The words ''placing the country under such judicial administration and economic- conditions as will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down in the preamble, and ".
Article 7.—The sentence "There shall be included in this law provisions framed so as to facilitate the acquisition of Palestinian citizenship by Jews who take up their permanent residence in
Article 11. —The second sentence of the first paragraph and the second paragraph.
In the application of the Mandate to Trans-Jordan, the action which, in
, is taken by the Administration of the
latter country, will be taken by the Administration of Trans-Jordan under the
general supervision of the Mandatory. Palestine
3. His Majesty's Government accept full responsibility as Mandatory for Trans-Jordan, and undertake that such provision as may be made for the administration of that territory in accordance with Article 25 of the Mandate shall be in no way inconsistent with those provisions of the Mandate which are not by this resolution declared inapplicable.